Preheat oven to 375°F. Thinly slice bread into 1/4-inch slices and tear into smaller pieces for a rustic look. Transfer bread to a large bowl. Drizzle with olive oil, tossing the bread to coat. Add salt and pepper and toss.
Spread the croutons on a baking sheet in a sinlge layer. Bake for 5 minutes, toss and stir. Bake another 5 minutes and check for doneness. Depending on the size of the bread and how browned you want them, they may need another 5 minutes or so. Allow to cool. Meanwhile, make the chicken.
Heat oil over medium-high heat in a large pan or skillet. Season both sides of the chicken breasts with salt and pepper. Place chicken breasts in skillet and cook for 5-8 minutes on each side, or until chicken are cooked through (165°F internal temperature). Allow to rest on a serving a cutting board. Slice into thin pieces.
In a large bowl, whisk together 3 tablespoons lemon juice, mustard, anchovy paste, garlic, salt, and pepper. While whisking, slowly drizzle in olive oil. Add more lemon juice as desired.
Place the kale in large mixing bowl and toss with dressing. Add cheese, chicken and croutons. Toss and serve.