25 Types of Peppers to Know


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There are so many types of peppers. Some are easy on the taste buds; others are a mild form of torture. So how hot can you go? Let’s find out with a few selected varieties listed below. 

Different types of peppers

Types of peppers

While technically fruits in most cases (and ones with a strong summer season), peppers and chiles don’t exactly bring the sweet, juicy flavors you expect from berries in the summertime. Instead, they challenge our taste buds to live on the edge.

Peppers thrive in the summertime when they can soak up the heat and enjoy dry weather. They like to live in heat, produce heat, and bring the heat to our kitchens. Most plants will still produce into fall as well.

Bell peppers

Bell peppers

Bell peppers are sweet and they can be eaten raw with hummus (or other dips) or cooked into stir-fries. They’re available in red, green, orange, and yellow. Sometimes they’re dried and ground into paprika.

  • 0 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Shishito peppers

These are often roasted and blistered. Once charred and drizzled with oil or sauce, they make a great appetizer on their own. But beware, eating them is a gamble. It’s a mostly tame pepper, but there is usually one spicy shishito in the bunch. You just don’t know which one until you bite into it.

  • 50 to 100 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Banana pepper

Also a sweet pepper, they’re often used on deli sandwiches. They’re also good in salads (you’ll usually see them in antipasto at Italian joints) and on pizza. They have a little more tang to them than bell peppers.

  • 0 to 500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Sweet Italian pepper (pepperoncini)

Often confused with banana peppers, the two look and taste very similar and can almost always be used interchangeably. Pepperoncinis just bring a little more tang. They aren’t spicy.

  • 100 to 500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Pimento pepper

Also referred to as cherry peppers, they’re also a key ingredient in pimento cheese. A great candidate when stuffing peppers, as they not spicy and fall in second to the lowest tier of the Scoville scale.

  • 100 to 500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


You’ll mostly see these canned or jarred at specialty grocery stores. They can be pureed for sauces or even stuffed with cheese, baked, and eaten as an hors d’oeuvre. They aren’t generally considered too spicy, comparable to an Anaheim or poblano pepper.

  • 500 to 1,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Cuban pepper (or cubanelle pepper)

These are popular peppers to fry, but you can also use them instead of bell peppers in various dishes to add a different flavor. Still mild in heat, they’re considered sweet peppers.

  • 1,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Poblano peppers

Ever hear of ancho chilis? That’s a dried poblano pepper. Poblano peppers have mild to medium heat, one step up from the banana peppers and pimentos. When fresh, roasting is a popular cooking method. They’re also the pepper of choice in chile relleno.

  • 1,000 to 1,500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Anaheim peppers

When you see canned green chiles, they’re likely Anaheim peppers. They’re lower on the heat scale than habaneros, more comparable to a poblano. But there is a hotter strain of the Anaheim pepper that originates in New Mexico: hatch chiles.

  • 500 to 2,500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Also a favorite in mole sauce, pasilla peppers are the dried form of a type of pepper known as chilaca peppers. They have a mild heat that falls below jalapenos on the Scoville scale.

  • 1,000 to 2,500 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Jalapeno peppers

Just a bump up from Anaheim and poblano peppers, jalapenos start to bring the heat. As one of the more common peppers to cook with, they go great in everything from chilis and soups to salads. A chipotle pepper is simply a smoked jalapeno pepper.

  • 2,500 to 8,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Fresno pepper

Similar to jalapeno peppers, but a bit spicer, and sweeter. They are glossy, firm, and medium thickness in flesh.  Great for Latin dishes like stews, soups, dips, or fire roasted.

  • 2,500 to 10,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Yellow chile

Yellow chile pepper

These sweet peppers can range from very mild to hot. They have thick flesh, bright yellow in color, smooth texture, and shiny surface. They can be stuffed and cooked, roasted, seared on the grill, pickled, or chopped up raw for salads and crudites.

  • 100 to 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Serrano peppers

Serrano peppers are hotter than jalapenos but not as hot as habaneros. Like jalapenos, they’re sometimes minced and used in salsa and guacamole.

  • 8,000 to 22,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


The name sounds hot and exotic, but the guajillo pepper won’t burn your tongue off like some of the other peppers on this list. It’s more of a jalapeno hot but sweeter. It’s also one of the most common peppers to dry, and it’s famously used in mole sauce.

  • 2,500 to 30,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Hotter than serranos, cayenne peppers can light your mouth on fire. In addition to red cayenne peppers you’re likely used to seeing, you can also find cayenne gold peppers, which are yellow.

  • 35,000 to 50,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Almost as hot as a habanero, these peppers can be deceiving. They look a lot like bell peppers on the outside, but underneath the sweet skin is serious spice.

  • 30,000 to 100,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Bird’s Eye

These spicy peppers fall somewhere between cayenne pepper and habanero pepper. The bird’s eye pepper is actually just one type of Thai pepper. Of course, used in Thai cuisine, cooks also rely on them to bring the heat to hot sauce, and they’re sometimes used in chili powders.

  • 50,000 to 100,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Piri Piri

You can still consider these peppers above-average hot, but they’re in the edible territory and often used in African and Portuguese cuisine.

  • 50,000 to 175,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)


Habanero peppers

Habaneros smoke jalapenos on the heat scale. Under the ghost pepper, they’re one of the hottest widely available peppers. Underneath all that heat, they have hints of sweetness.

  • 100,000 to 350,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Scotch Bonnet

A popular pepper used in Caribbean cuisine, scotch bonnets are most often compared to habaneros. So, they bring the heat — not a mild pepper by any mean. Eat with caution.

  • 80,000 to 400,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)

Notable Super Hots

  • Ghost pepper – Ghost peppers are not as lethal as the Carolina Reaper, but they’re comparable to the Komodo dragon pepper. Lose a bet and the punishment just might be eating a ghost pepper. 1,000,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU).
  • Komodo Dragon – People often think ghost peppers are the hottest you can go, but Komodo dragon peppers are comparable. They taste sweet until their heat sets in (at which point you likely regret ever biting into it). 1,400,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU).
  • Carolina Reaper – Even hotter than the Komodo dragon pepper, it’s almost the closest you can get to eating pepper spray. It’s not widely available. 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU).
  • Dragon’s Breath – Arguably the hottest pepper there is, fact or hoax? It’s also one of the smallest peppers. They pack so much heat into about a half inch that they’re not commercially available at all and not recommended for eating. Please note, no official testing lab has backed up its claim to be 2,480,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU).

What is the Scoville heat unit scale for grading the heat of peppers?

The Scoville heat unit scale rates how spicy peppers and pepper-based products (like hot sauce and chili powders) are. It starts at zero units with the bell pepper and goes up to 16 million units, which is pure capsaicin. Most commercially available peppers don’t crack the 300,000 to 500,000 range, but a few of them are in the millions.

Pepper nutrition

The exact nutrition of each type of pepper of course varies, but generally speaking, many are a great source of vitamin C. Many also provide a healthy amount of vitamin A. Capsaicin itself, the key element in peppers that makes them spicy, has been used medicinally for ages.

However, peppers are also part of the nightshade family which is associated with inflammation. Those with autoimmune conditions may be advised to avoid them.

How to use peppers in cooking

Peppers are used in everything from sauces and condiments to spices and powders. You’ll use these ingredients in dips, jellies, soups, chili, stews, stir-fries, salsa, and so much more. Some peppers are stuffed or charred and served as appetizers, while others are minced up so fine you might never know they’re there.

How are dried peppers used in cooking?

dried peppers

Dried peppers are ground up into powder form and turned into spices. You can buy whole, dried peppers as well which can add more heat and flavor to sauces, purees, and marinades than pre-ground spices offer.

Jessica Gavin

I'm a culinary school graduate, cookbook author, and a mom who loves croissants! My passion is creating recipes and sharing the science behind cooking to help you gain confidence in the kitchen.

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57 Comments Leave a comment or review

  1. Stephen Rogers says

    Very educational Jessica! I have only had some the regulars jalapeno and bell,but now i know whole lot more. Thanks p.s. Im not brave or dumb enough to try ghosts or the reaper

    • Brendan Picante says

      Use a food dehydrator. Cut the pods in half and place them cut side up and let em go for a few hours. It will take longer depending in the tickness of the pepper you choose. If you try something like a jalapeno or bell cut them into thin strips. Those things take forever!

      After that grind em up in a spice grinder or pick up a cheap coffee grinder.

  2. James says

    The dragons Breath is nonsense. It’s been a hoax since its postings hit the social media circuit. And there are tons of great super hots out there between the Ghost and the Carolina Reaper. All have their place in the culinary world and they each have cult like followings. From sweet to fire hot, they are all amazing.

    • Chile Community says

      You need to edit again. There’s nothing to “officially test” because the Dragon’s Breath pepper doesn’t exist. It’s just an Infinity pepper. Neil Price and Chili Bob (RIP) scammed a lot of people and had to refund everything they sold. Dragon’s Breath and Pepper X are an insult to the chile community. Also HP22B doesn’t sit at 2.2 million SHU. More like 1.5 million if the plant is grown correctly. It’s also really a 7 Pot Primo grown by Troy Primeaux, stolen by Smokin Ed.

  3. Nan says

    I wish peppers as food would not be included in the same conversation as peppers as dares, punishment, or weapons.

  4. Cynthia Owen says

    Love the info. I am growing (and eating) the shishito peppers this year….so good! med heat, haven’t found the hot one yet. Put a stick of some kind of cheese, sizzle them in little oil to blister, deliscious!

  5. Alex Wood says

    Thank you for putting this together ? I’m new to researching chillis and am just looking into learning how to grow them and particularly which chillis give different flavours/tastes. For me it’s not all about how hot they are, but what nice flavours you could make into a sauce. I’m looking to choose some chillis to make a nice sweet hot sauce, and a buffalo style hot sauce so this is useful for me to help select which seeds to buy 🙂

  6. henry mayer says

    I just bought some Carolina Reapers to try in a recipe. WOW!!!
    They border on the ugly. 1 to 2 mil Scovilles is altogether too much for anything I can think of.

  7. Sharon Mathews says

    I bought some peppers that were marked “tom”. They look like long jalapenos. I can’t find anything to tell me how hot or uses for them. They don’t seem too hot. Any ideas?

  8. Ed T Billham says


  9. Kevin M says

    This is very informative. I have a Sicilian Italian cookbook. The Sicilian spaghetti sauce calls for green peppers to be roasted and peeled prior to adding to sauce. Are they talking about bell peppers?? Or a different type of pepper?
    (Other ingredients are black Sicilian olives, anchovy fillets, capers…)

  10. Steve Riggs says

    I recently bought a package of Dragon cayenne F1 seeds. The picture looks like a small (1-2″) Serrano. Do you know anything about them? Heat?

  11. Paul Moon says

    Have to say , the best pepper on that list is the Fresno pepper , its so tasty and easy to grow on the windowsill. Not many seeds within compared to others but I packs a good punch.

  12. Beverly Hinton says

    Thank you so much for this information! I bought several plants to put in my garden, but they were mislabeled?. I tried to look at your pictures to identify what I’ve grown…but not quite sure because all of your pepers don’t include pictures. But thank you, they might be Anaheim!

  13. Dee Myers says

    Thank you for this informative article, pictures by each pepper ?️ would have been a little more helpful, but this was very edifying nonetheless 🙂

  14. chantal mongeau says

    Hi Jessica,
    Thank you for all the details on the varieties of peppers. I grew a couple of different types and would be willing to expand on growing other types but now have more knowledge on how much heat to expect.

  15. Moazam Syed says

    Hi Jessica:

    I definitely enjoyed your article. Very informative.

    Specifically, your comparative mention ( between heat of this and that pepper) is very useful.

    I’m going to save your article as a baseline reference.

    I’m originally from Pakistan. Come pickle season (summer) my mom would collect spices for big batches of mango (raw) and lemon pickles.

    There would be so many types of Chili powders. All shades of red. It was not only heat but the taste they knew about.

    I wish I had learnt that art of selection!

    If you know of any book that talks about relative tastes of peppers and chilies, please advise.

    Bottom line; you are a very gifted human being!


    Moazam Syed
    Retired P. E.
    Fort Worth

  16. Tim says

    Thanks Jessica,
    Fun web page, good reference for Scoville units
    My high school age son works at the local grocery store
    A customer purchased only one item
    A serano pepper for 6 cents

  17. Jim Basler says

    “Hatch chiles” are not a “variety” of Anaheim pepper. Hatch is a farming community in southern New Mexico. The heat and flavor of a pepper are influenced by the soil and climate in which they are grown, and the climate and soil in the Hatch area give Anaheim peppers a distinctive flavor. Think of Vidalia onions. Vidalia onions are any variety of sweet onion grown within a specific area in Georgia, where the soil and climate in that area gives sweet onions grown there a distinctive flavor. Hatch chiles are not trademarked like Vidalia onions are, but “Hatch chile” refers to any variety of Anaheim chile grown in the Hatch area.

  18. derek stocker says

    We live in Bulgaria Jess where the language and Cyrillic alphabet can make life interesting.
    My wife bought pepper plants in the spring. The garden shop stated they were Bell which I have tried growing from seed, without success, for ten years. Other types have grown.
    The peppers are now ready but I cannot fathom what type. I was hoping to find a pic amongst your 25!
    They are light green, 6 to 8 inches and taper to a point. Similar in appearance to chilly peppers. With some trepidation, I risked a nibble. There was no heat and the mild taste is sweeter than a green bell.
    OH yes, they look wrinkled as if they have dried, the appearance deceptive as they are moist.
    Could you enlighten my wife & me please?

    • Jessica Gavin says

      Italian long hot peppers tend to be more sweet, tangy, and mild heat, ranging between 100 to 1000 Scoville units. Great for roasting or slicing up for pizzas, sandwiches, or making your favorite pasta sauce a little spicy.

  19. Melissa says

    As a person allergic to peppers i found this list very helpful in creating a handout to give to restaurants. Thank you so much for this. I of course added Paprika, and Crushed red peppers as I have had places tell me these are not made from peppers.

  20. Susan Kania says

    Please include pics for all, my friend gave me some jalopino shaped peppers ,but only alittle spicy @ the end,thanx

  21. Gary Hayes says

    Excellent, well written and organized. Wanting to spice up homemade salsa was looking for red peppers used in Louisiana hot sauce or New York hot sauce. A response would be appreciated.

  22. Bob Roberts says

    Not impressed by this pile of nothingness.
    Was hoping to find a real description of the flavor of the peppers, instead you told me this is hotter than that.

    So disappointing