Maillard Reaction: The Key to Flavor Development

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The Maillard reaction is an important culinary process responsible for new flavor, aroma, and color development. It makes food taste better! Learn the science behind this essential chemical reaction and how it applies to cooking.

Chicken breast with maillard reaction showing a golden brown crust cooking in a cast iron pan

The Maillard reaction– you want it to happen when cooking and here’s why. This highly desired culinary process creates hundreds of new flavor and aroma compounds with the application of heat. The chemical reaction is the visible color change to a stunning golden brown hue on the surface of foods.

The resulting combination of flavor and color change often happens with dry-heat cooking methods under the right temperature, acidity, and moisture conditions. You’ve seen and tasted it before. It’s the perfect crust on a seared juicy ribeye steak. It’s the crispy amber layer on a pan-fried piece of halibut. It’s the flaky golden crust on a baked apple pie.

What is the Maillard Reaction?

The Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning that occurs in foods when proteins and/or amino acids chemically react with carbohydrates of reducing sugars. Applying heat during cooking accelerates and continues this intricate process, which elevates the taste, aromas, and appearance of food.

Ribeye steak cooking in a cast iron skillet

Kitchen experts like Nathan Myhrvold, author of Modernist Cuisine says the Maillard reaction should be called the “the flavor reaction” and not the “browning reaction” due to its essential contribution to flavor and aroma development. It’s the silent star of cooking, acknowledged more for its supporting role. That should change!

Let’s take a second to thank Louis-Camille Maillard, a French physician, who discovered this fascinating reaction around 1910. We can now reap all the benefits from his meticulous investigation and studies. Research on this topic is still being studied by food scientists today and more knowledge of this fundamental principle is still being uncovered.

Let’s geek out on the science

The Maillard reaction happens in multiple complex stages. Three things must be available for the response to occur; amino acids, reducing sugars, and water. This is going to sound complicated because it is! But here are some basic things that occur during the process:

  • Reducing sugars like glucose and fructose react with an amino acid that is free or part of a protein chain.
  • Unstable intermediate structures called Amadori compounds are formed that are initially flavorless and colorless.
  • New flavor compounds called dicarbonyls are created.
  • Hundreds of different by-products continue to form that will impact flavor, aroma, and color.
  • Melanoidin pigment molecules form and a deep brown color appears on the surface of foods.

Golden brown egg roll being taken out of deep frying liquid

Most foods naturally contain varying amounts and different types of proteins and sugar. That’s why beef or chicken looks and tastes different than banana bread when cooked. High-heat methods like roasting, baking, pan-frying, deep-frying, grilling, pressure cooking, searing, braising and stewing benefit from this process. It’s one of the reasons why I always sear meat before adding it to a slow cooker because the moist heat cooking in a Crock-pot never gets above 212ºF (100ºC) for Maillard browning to occur.

The role of temperature

Person using a meat thermometer to check doneness of a steak

The Maillard process can begin at room temperature. However, turning up the heat nudges the process along. Typically when the surface temperature of food reaches 300°F (149°C), the process is in full throttle. That means the environment used for the dry-heat cooking method needs to be set at a higher range, 350°F (177ºC) and above.

Caution! Browning reactions are great until food becomes burnt (hello pyrolysis!). At surface temperatures above 355°F (180°C), foods get blackened and bitter tasting. It’s a delicate balance that requires attention. So don’t check out on social media for too long or you’ll be sorry!

 How moisture plays a part

before and after photo of roasted potatoes on a sheet pan

A small amount of moisture is needed in the food from a molecular level to aid in the browning process, although too much can impair it. The key is to make sure the surface of the food is dry to prevent steaming and promote the maximum amount of browning. Here are some ways to remove surface moisture:

  • Dry the surface of the food with paper towels before cooking.
  • Air dry meat and vegetables on a tray in the refrigerator overnight.
  • Salt foods right before cooking to prevent excess moisture on the surface due to osmosis.
  • Reverse searing beef in the oven before pan-searing dries the surface of the food for quicker browning.

There will be some moisture released from the food as it cooks. The high heat of the cooking pan and oil will help to evaporate excess water quickly. Reducing the moisture on the surface of a roasted chicken will lead to crispy browned skin happening faster.

Why you don’t want too much acidity

Crispy baked chicken wings in a silver bowl

In science terms, that’s the pH, or how basic (like milk), acidic (mouth-puckering lemon juice), or alkaline (think olives) a portion of food is. The rule is, the more acidic the environment, pH 6 and below, the less browning will occur. What can be done? Adding a small amount of an alkaline ingredient like baking soda boosts the browning reaction.

This is a clever trick used in Chinese stir-fry’s to rapidly brown foods since chopped pieces of meat only need a few minutes of wok time. Sprinkling or tossing some baking soda with skin-on poultry also aids in crispiness and color development. I do this for my baked buffalo wings to make them extra crunchy and golden. Give it a try and see the difference!

Maillard vs. Caramelization: An Identity Crisis

Often caramelization and Maillard browning are used synonymously, although they’re very different! They are both non-enzymatic browning reactions, but that’s where the similarities end. Caramelization happens in concentrated sugar environments with a very low amount of moisture. It’s when complex sugars break down into simple sugars, followed by other reactions to create browned colors.

My favorite example, homemade caramel sauce. Depending on the type of sugar, caramelization on average begins at 248ºF (120ºC), much lower than the Maillard reaction. Sometimes Maillard browning and caramelization happen succinctly, just at varying levels.

Why the Maillard Reaction makes you salivate

chocolate chip dough ball on parchment paper lined baking sheet

Okay, you’re reading this article and probably wondering, “Why should I care about all this science mumbo jumbo?” It comes down to this: Maillard reaction makes foods more enjoyable to eat.

When you heat foods, your senses are engaged and lured by a plethora of aroma molecules engulfing the air. It’s not a coincidence that when baking a batch of raw cookie dough, 10 minutes later my son magically appears in the kitchen because of all of the newly emerging sweet and warm smells that have hit his nose. It’s been researched that about 70% of what you taste is actually what you smell.

Cooked foods trigger this animalistic survival mode in our brain, and turning on those saliva glands. Coaxing out the Maillard reaction is a cascading catalyst to what makes people so passionate about food. It’s why I can never turn down a freshly baked flaky croissant, why some people prefer their bagel toasted, the distinctive smell of fresh coffee beans, and why chocolatiers roast cocoa nibs to make dark chocolate. So spread the word, now you know the scientific terminology that makes food taste better, the Maillard reaction.

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Jessica Gavin

I'm a culinary school graduate, cookbook author, and a mom who loves croissants! My passion is creating recipes and sharing the science behind cooking to help you gain confidence in the kitchen.

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36 Comments Leave a comment or review

  1. Marlus Cajazeira says

    What an excelent post!
    Thanks to explain this complex theme in a simple way!
    I started to know your blog yesterday and I’m really enjoying it.
    Congratulations

  2. Heather says

    On this page, you mention adding baking SODA to a recipe to increase browning (for stir-fry cooking, Buffalo wings, etc.). However on your linked Buffalo wings page, you say to use baking POWDER. Which one is it? I read on your soda vs. powder page that baking soda is 4x more powerful than baking powder, but you also only used the word “alkaline” on that page to describe baking soda. So… I’m confused! 🙂

    • Jessica Gavin says

      Hi Heather- Baking soda and baking powder both contain sodium bicarbonate (an alkaline substance), however, baking powder also has a built-in acid to make the bubbling reaction happen more consistently. I like to use baking powder on the wings because I want a bubbly reaction on the skin surface so there is more crispiness. There isn’t anything very acidic in the wing recipe, so choosing baking powder helps the reaction happen. I hope that helps!

  3. Patrick says

    I just stumbled across this great in-depth info on the science of the magic that happens to food as we love it. Thank you for sharing. I just fell in love with your page. Thanks again

  4. Mahlon Bouldin says

    Hey there. I discovered your site this past weekend while looking for recipes for chicken thighs. I haven’t cooked them yet because I’ve been poring over your pages and loving it all. I appreciate the science angle and also how you dispense it layman’s terms, getting us the information we need to jolt our imagination into further research.
    Plus, your recipes look fantastic (videos are perfect inspirations points) and I followed the one for easy fried rice tonight. Having a sister-in-law from China really made me pay attention. It was delish.
    Please keep doing your thang. You’ve got a good vibe going on here. Your layout and content on the website is perfectly balanced.
    Thank you!!

  5. ziva says

    Thanks for this great post. Did you try baking soda on puff pastry as egg wash substitute? I want to get the brownish effect. Thanks!

  6. Angshuman Das says

    Hi Jessica:

    Since you are a food science geek, I have got a question — about the right temperature for the puris (Indian deep-fried savory pastry) to puff up. I know from my mother that the oil has to be hot enough but not too hot — if temperature is lower, the puris don’t puff up and absorb too much oi; on the other hand, too hot will brown or burn before puffing, which involves pressing the pastry into the oil briefly to submerge it.

    Looking forward to your answer. Thanks.

    • Jessica Gavin says

      Your mom is extremely wise! The optimal temperature for deep frying is between 325 to 375°F (163 to 191°C). Above 400°F (205°C) and it will brown too quickly and the inside will be raw. I’ve read that you can test the puri by adding a small piece into the oil and if it floats up immediately, it’s the right temperature. I would check with a thermometer in between batches. Let me know how it goes!

  7. Okebaram Ekwuribe says

    Great article! I have a tone of questions and if you can answer any that would be splendid. How do fat and oil affect the flavoring process during browning? For example, I have seen people sprinkle oil on meat as they grill it, and at other times it seems the fat from the meat is creating flavors as well. Or could it be inhibiting flavors?

    Also when you fry something in oil, it tastes different. Not that it tastes better than grilled, it doesn’t. But it has its own unique flavors that must have been studied too. What reactions are going on there and how do you compare or contrast that, or use that to a flavor advantage, when it comes to flavor and deliciousness maximization during browning.

    One more… What about smoking? Smoked fish and smoked meat have their own flavor awesomeness and can taste so good. What is happening when food is smoked and what are the conditions for the reaction (just like you explained the conditions for Maillard browning)? If I could add a PS, it would be asking for cooking tips to maximize browning all through food but at the perfect balance without burning it or undercooking the core, especially meats.

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